Electronic components are the essential parts of electronic circuits, these circuits are used for every single electrical appliance and without having them such appliances cannot function.
Hence, the significance of these electrical components cannot be denied because every kind of component has a purpose in the electronic circuit to fulfill.
If we look at the variations in the electronic component types, there are many small and big parts, each having its particular function.
The basic electronic components, which are used in almost all electronic devices, are what we will be discussing here.
In this article, I have provided a detailed insight into the basic components used in an electrical circuit, and and it will also include that what are the uses of each electronic components in the electronic system.
Therefore, read the guide below and learn about the different electrical elements and their functionality.
What are the Basic Electronic Components?
There are three categories of basic electronic component, active components, passive components, and electromechanical components.
Electronic components have two terminals connected to the two ends of the circuit or one at the battery’s negative terminal and one at its positive terminal, it helps create an electrical connection.
The basic electronic components in electrical devices comprise resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and many more.
These electronic components listed above are found to be present in all consumer electronics and are an essential part of the control circuit helping to generate electric power.
What Are Active Components?
Active components are used in the devices to generate electrical energy by amplifying the electrical signal.
These elements act as AC signals and protect the devices from a high voltage that causes a lot of electric current.
These components are power-driven and need energy; examples of active components include transistors, oscillators, and integrated circuits or ICs.
What are Passive Electronic Components?
Passive components do not rely on the power supply and instead access the power from the AC voltage they are connected to; therefore, they do not offer amplification.
Such inductive components comprise two terminals, and examples of these include inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, and many more.
What are Electromechanical Components?
Electromechanical components create mechanical changes in electronic devices, for instance, motor rotation.
With the help of electric current, such discrete components create a magnetic field, and movement takes place.
Electromechanical components include different kinds of electromechanical relay and switching device.
These electronic control parts carry out mechanical and electrical functions and can be operated manually to create electric output that leads to movement.
Types of Passive Components
Various electronic components fall under the passive components range, which is discussed in detail below.
The main task of passive components is to maintain or store electrical energy, which is in the form of current or voltage.
Resistor is a passive component with two terminals; it either limits or opposes the current flow in the circuit.
Resistors are the most important and commonly used elements in electrical circuits because they allow the circuit to work properly by setting up the correct voltage.
There are many different kinds of resistors used; however, the common types of resistors are discussed below:
- Variable Resistor
A variable resistor modifies the resistance in the electric circuit according to the user’s requirement; these are used as three-terminal devices to calibrate it.
- Fixed Resistors
To incorporate the right conditions in the electrical circuit, fixed resistors are used; these have a fixed value of resistances set when the circuits are designed.
These resistors need no adjustment in the circuit and work the way they are designed.
- Light Dependent Resistor
The light dependent resistor is a special resistor used in various electrical circuits used in alarms, clocks, and streetlights.
The resistors work based on their surroundings; when surrounded by darkness, they offer a high level of resistance, and when they are in light, they offer low resistance.
What are the Uses of Resistors?
The main purpose of resistors is to reduce the flow of current through the circuit, and devices like mobile phones, grinders, home appliances, laptops, kettles, and many more tend to use these resistors to control the electrical flow.
Resistors are connected in a circuit to ensure that the electrical charge that passes through the circuit of a device doesn’t harm it.
Two plates in a capacitor conduct electricity, and in between them lies an insulator that stores electrical energy and creates an electrical field.
The capacitor blocks the dc power supply and lets the AC signals pass through, and these can be used with the resistors in the timing circuit.
The two plates of the capacitor comprise one having positive voltage and the other having negative.
There are multiple types of capacitors, each serving different purposes, and some of these common types are discussed below:
- Fixed Capacitors
Fixed capacitors are used in electrical connections with a fixed value of capacitance; these can be either polarized or non-polarized.
There are various types of fixed capacitors that are classified depending on the kind of dielectric material used in their making.
Different fixed capacitors commonly comprise tantalum electrolytic capacitors, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, mica capacitors, and ceramic capacitors.
- Variable Capacitors
As the name suggests, these capacitors are the ones that have a variable capacitance value, and the plates are adjusted depending on the changing capacitance value.
It comprises mechanical movements powered by electricity and is commonly used in radios. An air capacitor is a widely used capacitor under the head of variable capacitors.
- Trimmer Capacitor
Trimmer capacitors are used in electronic components that have no requirement to change the capacitance once they are adjusted in the first place.
These capacitors use a sheet of material, which is dielectric, and they are suitable to control moderate and low voltages offering high efficiency.
What are the Uses of Capacitors?
The primary usage of capacitors is that they store electrical charge, offer power conditioning, coupling and decoupling of signals, and remote sensing.
Multiple industries use capacitors in their electrical contacts, and even in electromagnetic switch, capacitors form a basic electronic component.
The simplest electronic components are the inductors, which can store energy when current flows through a magnetic field.
It has an insulated wire, which looks like a coil, and when the current flows through the coil changes, the magnetic field starts to induce a voltage in the conductor, which causes an opposition of the current being introduced.
In short, inductors oppose the electric current changes that pass through them.
The inductor’s magnetic field causes inductance that quantifies the amount of energy the inductor may store.
The inductor comprises a magnetic wire made using copper and is insulated with a polymer; the shape of the coil may vary between rectangular, square, and circular.
The insulation on the coil prevents a short circuit, and insulators are used widely in building electronic circuits.
There are many different types of inductors, and some of them are discussed below:
- Iron Core Inductors
Iron core inductors, as the name suggests, are manufactured with iron and are used in components that are low frequency since they offer a larger inductance; they are used in various audio and piezoelectric devices.
- Air Core Inductors
The air core inductors are of such kind that they have an open-air core, and therefore they offer a very low level of inductance. These inductors have a current rate, which rises very fast, and consequently, these are suitable for high-frequency applications.
What are the Uses of Inductors?
Inductors are quite expensive because they are made using expensive materials and are used in applications when such expense is justified, like in dc power supplies, operational amplifier, telecommunication equipment, etc.
When used in a power supply, an inductor’s role is to prevent sudden changes in the current flow, and it works along with a capacitor to control the electrical signals.
Types of Active Components
The main job of active components is to control the flow of electrons; the active components called electrical elements include diodes, transistors, integrated circuit, etc.
Diode is a semiconductor device that allows the current to flow in only one direction; the material it is made in is also semiconductor material that comprises two terminals.
Diodes are widely used to convert the AC circuit to the DC circuit, and various kinds of diodes are discussed below:
- Light Emitting Diode
In this kind of diode, the electrical current between the electrodes passes through the diode, causing light production.
The diode is responsible for allowing the light to generate, and the frequency level of the light may vary; as LEDs are present in different colors, they could be the best example of such diodes comprise being under the list of semiconductor devices using these diodes.
- Laser Diode
Laser diode produces coherent light and is used in DVD drives, laser devices, and CD drives and is cheaper than LEDs; however, they have a minimal lifespan.
- P-N junction diode
These diodes are known as rectifier diodes and comprise two layers of semiconductor material. One type of material is doped with a p-type material and the other with n-type material.
This diode allows the current to flow in the forward direction and blocks the flow in the reverse direction.
What are the Uses of Diodes?
The purpose of diodes is to isolate the electrical signals from the power supply, and it is used to eliminate the negative signals from the AC current, carrying out signal demodulation.
It is used in the radio’s logic gates, switches, voltage regulators, oscillators, signal mixers, and filtering systems.
The transistor is also the semiconductor device capable of controlling the voltage or current that flows through the circuit board.
The transistor consists of three basic electronic components terminals, and when the current flowing to one terminal is controlled, the other two terminals are also controlled.
Many types of transistors are used, and some are discussed below.
- Bipolar Junction Transistor
A bipolar junction transistor comprises a semiconductor with three terminals: the base, collector, and emitter. When a considerable amount of electric current flows into the collector, it moves to the emitter and is modified into a smaller current.
- Field Effect Transistors
This transistor type contains a gate, drain, and source, which are used as devices controlling the voltage. Hence, the behavior of the electric field is also controlled.
- Junction Field Effect Transistors
These transistors do not contain a PN junction but have semiconductors that form silicon channels with n-type and p-type material. The electrical charge flows through these terminals, the negative through the n-channel and the positive through the p-channel.
What are the Uses of Transistors?
Transistors are very commonly used in multiple electronic devices that are microelectronic computer circuit incorporated; in computing devices, billions of transistors are present, and piezoelectric devices crystals resonators also comprise using such basic electronic components.
3. Integrated Circuits
A small chip that contains thousands of resistors, transistors, and multiple other electronic components is called an integrated circuit or ICs; these are all fabricated on a small silicon chip.
These days multiple devices like mobile phones, printed circuit boards and computers tend to use these ICs, which can either be analog circuits or carry out digital signal processing.
Integrated circuits can be called network components because multiple basic electronic components are present over these.
There are two main types of integrated circuits, and these are discussed below:
- Analog ICs
These ICs offer input as well as output signals continuously and are used widely to amplify the frequency in radios and other audio devices.
- Digital ICs
Digital integrated circuits, on the other hand, operate with binary data, and these are commonly used in multiple electronic projects.
What are the Uses of Integrated Circuits?
Multiple industries use ICs ranging from automobiles to technology, and products like printed circuit board, microprocessors, network switches, and amplifiers use these circuits.
The working of the input circuit and the output circuit in each electronic device is essential. Therefore, these basic electronic components are necessary for these devices and serve multiple purposes.
Going through the guide above, you must know all the details of every component; if you have more to share, you can share in the comment box below.